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The greatest of all modern philosophers was born in the Baltic seaport of Konigsberg, East Prussia, the son of a saddler and never left the vicinity of his remote birthplace. Through his family pastor, Immanuel Kant received the opportunity to study at the newly founded Collegium Fredericianum, proceeding to the University of Konigsberg, where he was introduced to Wolffian philosophy and modern natural science by the philosopher Martin Knutzen. From 1746 to 1755, he served as tutor in various households near Konigsberg. Between 1755 and 1770, Kant published treatises on a number of scientific and philosophical subjects, including one in which he originated the nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system. Some of Kant's writings in the early 1760s attracted the favorable notice of respected philosophers such as J. H. Lambert and Moses Mendelssohn, but a professorship eluded Kant until he was over 45. In 1781 Kant finally published his great work, the Critique of Pure Reason. The early reviews were hostile and uncomprehending, and Kant's attempt to make his theories more accessible in his Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (1783) was largely unsuccessful. Then, partly through the influence of former student J. G. Herder, whose writings on anthropology and history challenged his Enlightenment convictions, Kant turned his attention to issues in the philosophy of morality and history, writing several short essays on the philosophy of history and sketching his ethical theory in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785). Kant's new philosophical approach began to receive attention in 1786 through a series of articles in a widely circulated Gottingen journal by the Jena philosopher K. L. Reinhold. The following year Kant published a new, extensively revised edition of the Critique, following it up with the Critique of Practical Reason (1788), treating the foundations of moral philosophy, and the Critique of Judgment (1790), an examination of aesthetics rounding out his system through a strikingly original treatment of two topics that were widely perceived as high on the philosophical agenda at the time - the philosophical meaning of the taste for beauty and the use of teleology in natural science. From the early 1790s onward, Kant was regarded by the coming generation of philosophers as having overthrown all previous systems and as having opened up a whole new philosophical vista. During the last decade of his philosophical activity, Kant devoted most of his attention to applications of moral philosophy. His two chief works in the 1790s were Religion Within the Bounds of Plain Reason (1793--94) and Metaphysics of Morals (1798), the first part of which contained Kant's theory of right, law, and the political state. At the age of 74, most philosophers who are still active are engaged in consolidating and defending views they have already worked out. Kant, however, had perceived an important gap in his system and had begun rethinking its foundations. These attempts went on for four more years until the ravages of old age finally destroyed Kant's capacity for further intellectual work. The result was a lengthy but disorganized manuscript that was first published in 1920 under the title Opus Postumum. It displays the impact of some of the more radical young thinkers Kant's philosophy itself had inspired. Kant's philosophy focuses attention on the active role of human reason in the process of knowing the world and on its autonomy in giving moral law. Kant saw the development of reason as a collective possession of the human species, a product of nature working through human history. For him the process of free communication between independent minds is the very life of reason, the vocation of which is to remake politics, religion, science, art, and morality as the completion of a destiny whose shape it is our collective task to frame for ourselves. (Bowker Author Biography) Philosopher Immanuel Kant was born in 1724 in Konigsberg, East Prussia. He studied at the University of Konigsberg, where he would act as a lecturer and professor after a brief career as a private tutor. Kant was an incredibly influential philosopher, his theories having impact on the likes of Schopenhauer and Hegel. Kant's most prominent works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781), Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (1785) and Critique of Practical Reason (1788). He died in 1804. (Bowker Author Biography) — biografia da Kritik der reinen Vernunft… (altro)
Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Autore) 6,071 copie, 42 recensioni
Fondazione della metafisica dei costumi (Autore) 3,408 copie, 16 recensioni
Critica del giudizio (Autore) 2,028 copie, 18 recensioni
Critica della ragion pratica (Autore) 1,672 copie, 10 recensioni
La religione entro i limiti della sola ragione (Autore) 733 copie, 3 recensioni
Per la pace perpetua (Autore) 538 copie, 9 recensioni
La metafisica dei costumi (Autore) 433 copie, 3 recensioni
Kant's Political Writings 411 copie, 2 recensioni
Che cos'è l'illuminismo? 273 copie, 4 recensioni
Logic 259 copie
The Metaphysical Elements of Justice 139 copie, 2 recensioni
On Education 109 copie, 1 recensione
Kant Selections 75 copie, 1 recensione
The Conflict of the Faculties (Autore) 66 copie, 1 recensione
Opus postumum 66 copie
Theoretical Philosophy, 1755-1770 35 copie, 1 recensione
Critica della ragion pura (v.1) 27 copie, 1 recensione
Opuscules sur l'histoire 25 copie, 1 recensione
The essential Kant 24 copie, 1 recensione
Schriften Zur Metaphysik Und Tl.1 12 copie, 1 recensione
Essai sur les maladies de la tête 10 copie, 1 recensione
Kant 9 copie
Crítica de la Razón Pura II (Autore) 8 copie, 1 recensione
Briefe 5 copie
La Pedagogia 4 copie
Logique 4 copie
Foundations of Ethics 3 copie, 1 recensione
Teoria do Céu (Autore) 3 copie
Kant-Brevier 3 copie
Le conflit des facultés (Autore) 3 copie
Kant I 2 copie
La pau perpetua 2 copie, 1 recensione
Géographie 2 copie
Kant 2 copie
Logika 2 copie
SOBRE EDUCACIÓN 2 copie, 1 recensione
La morale 1 copia
Scritti politici 1 copia, 1 recensione
Brevier 1 copia
Kant 1 copia
PROLEGOMENA 1 copia, 1 recensione
KANT 1 copia
Kant Tomo II 1 copia
Kritika e gjykimit 1 copia, 1 recensione
Philosophie de l'histoire (Autore) 1 copia
I. Kant 1 copia
Prolegomeni 1 copia
Fragmanlar 1 copia
Critiques 1 copia
O pedagogice 1 copia
The European Philosophers from Descartes to Nietzsche (Collaboratore) 405 copie, 3 recensioni
Critical Theory Since Plato (Collaboratore, alcune edizioni) 384 copie, 1 recensione
Criticism: Major Statements (Collaboratore) 207 copie
Western Philosophy: An Anthology (Autore, alcune edizioni) 169 copie
Man and Spirit: The Speculative Philosophers (Collaboratore) 162 copie, 1 recensione
Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology (Collaboratore) 67 copie
Range of Philosophy (Collaboratore) 47 copie
German Essays on Music (Collaboratore) 18 copie

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Emanuel Kant was

the fourth of the nine children of Johann Georg Kant (1682-1746), a saddler from Memel (now Klaipėda, Lithuania) and his wife, Anna Regina Reuter (1697-1737), who was from Nuremburg. Kant began to spell his name "Immanuel" after learning Hebrew. His paternal grandfather, Hans Cant, had emigrated to Prussia from Scotland. Kant enrolled at Königsberg University in 1840 at the age of 16. Between 1750 and 1754 he worked as a tutor (Hauslehrer) in Judtschen (now Veselovka, Russia)and in Groß-Arnsdorf (now near Elbląg, Poland). Kant went on to become Professor of Logic and Metaphysics at Königsberg (now Kaliningrad, Russia) in 1770, at the age of 46. He never married.
He was a towering figure of the Enlightenment, influenced nearly all modern philosophers. In his writings, including his masterpiece, the Critique of Pure Reason (1781), he argued that we can only truly know that which can be proven by evidence. He placed the active, rational human being at the center of the cognitive and moral worlds. He suggested that we have a moral obligation, which he called the "categorical Imperative," to behave in an intrinsically good way under all circumstances -- not necessarily in ways that would make us happy, but in ways that would make us worthy of being happy. In his 1795 work Perpetual Peace, he quoted the Latin phrase "Fiat justitia, pereat mundus" ("Let justice be done, though the world perish"). He also criticized those who focused too much on religious ritual and church hierarchy as attempts to please the Creator without having to practice the actual principles of religion and righteousness.
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